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The article presents the results of comparative studies of reliability of heavy goods vehicles of two selected brands in the long-term rental conditions. The vehicles were used in urban and suburban areas in Poland, in the vicinity of large cities: Warsaw and Rybnik. Description of the reliability was done taking into accounts mileage till the first damage of components and elements. Components and elements undergoing wear damage and elements whose damages were random were distinguished. The results of reliability were compared with the results of the analysis of the repair costs. On this basis the failure rate of the components involved was estimated. The results show that group of vehicles marked as a brand B is characterized by better reliability and lower maintenance costs than cars brand B. The results of the conducted tests may be used for the development of the new criteria for the evaluation of the operating efficiency of heavy goods vehicles.