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The article presents calculations of thermal and mechanical loads of the piston, consisting of two parts: steel and aluminum. The calculations were made using FEM in the Abaqus software. The piston is characterized by a split construction and was equipped with a cooling oil channel. The piston will be used in an aircraft diesel engine characterized by opposite piston movement. The presented geometry of the piston is the next of the ones being developed earlier and contains preliminary assumptions as to the size and main geometrical dimensions. The thermal boundary conditions of the simulation tests assumed defined areas of heat reception surface and heating of the piston by defining a temperature map on its crown. The results of these studies were presented in the form of temperature distribution and heat flux on the surface of the tested element. The strength boundary conditions assumed a mechanical load in the form of pressure resulting from the pressure in the combustion chamber applied to the piston crown surface and the opposite pressure defined on the support at the surface of contact between the piston and the piston pin. The results of these tests were presented in the form of stress distribution on the surface of the tested element. As a result of the analyses carried out, the results constituting the basis for further modernization of the piston geometry were obtained.