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Soil moisture is one of the most important soil parameters. Knowledge of volumetric water content (VWC) of the root zone as well as the VWC dynamics in the soil profile is especially important for agriculture. Monitoring VWC at several depths in the soil profile can be performed using several soil moisture sensors placed at various depths. However, the use of a profile probe is more convenient, because the installation of a single probe is less disturbing to the soil, as well as less laborious and more cost-effective. The objective of the paper is to present the design and performance of a novel profile probe working in the time-domain transmission mode (P-TDT probe) with emphasis put on the penetration depth and sensitivity zone. The performance of the probe was assessed with the use of finite element method (FEM) simulations in the frequency domain, transient simulations in the time domain and laboratory experiments with the use of a vector network analyzer (VNA) working in the 10 MHz–10 GHz frequency range. It was concluded that the effective soil volume measured by the profile probe of a given geometry is equivalent to a soil thickness of about 20 mm around the tested probe. The internal part of the probe body had a negligible effect on the measurement results, as it does not change with soil moisture. Moreover, the transmitted signal amplitude was related to the soil electrical conductivity