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Pedestrian exposure to traffic-related air pollution can lead to adverse health consequences. Research in this area is of particular importance in cities in Central and Eastern Europe, due to mostly outdated transportation fleet and seasonally variable weather conditions. This study estimates the contribution of traffic-related particles to the total doses of particles inhaled by pedestrians on a sidewalk along a busy road in Lublin, Eastern Poland during the day and at night in four seasons. The highest number and mass of traffic-related particles were received during the day on the sidewalk near 4-way traffic intersections. The highest contribution of traffic-related particles to the total number of inhaled ultrafine particles was estimated in the fall and equaled 68.6 ± 8.5%. The highest relative contribution of traffic-related PM2.5 amounted to 40.4 ± 2.7% and was obtained in the spring. The lowest doses of traffic-related particles were received in the summer. The findings of this study may contribute not only to actions taken at local level aimed at minimizing pedestrian exposure but also to redesigning or delineating sidewalks away from busy roads.