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This paper presents an experimental study of the composite beams with elastic couplings subjected to the end-notched flexure (ENF) test. The object of research were carbon/epoxy composite laminates with specific stacking sequences exhibiting the bending–extension and the bending–twisting couplings. In addition, multidirectional laminates with different delamination interfaces were tested. Influence of elastic coupling phenomena on behavior of laminates subjected to the bending moment as well as on fracture toughness and delamination surfaces after the ENF tests was discussed. All experiments were performed according to the ASTM D7905 Standard. Determination of crack initiation was supported by the acoustic emission technique. Data analysis of the ENF test was performed by using both the direct beam theory and the corrected beam theory. Results obtained by using the classical data reduction schemes were compared with the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). Greater values of the fracture toughness obtained by using the non-standardized methods can be explained by the effect of the fracture process zone which was taken into account in the CBBM calculation scheme. Delamination surfaces of coupled laminates after the ENF tests were investigated by using the scanning electron microscopy. Results revealed that the effect of elastic couplings might influenced on intense bridging phenomena, more extensive fracture process zone and contribution of the mode III in total delamination resistance. Nevertheless, application of the standardized ENF procedure to determination of the fracture toughness of laminates exhibiting elastic couplings is still possible, provided assistance of additional data reduction schemes and techniques or numerical analysis.