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This work was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology—Regional
Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).
The paper presents the results of the research into the impact of impregnation of wood on its bending strength and elastic modulus under normal conditions and after thermal treatment and investigates its structural reliability. Pinewood, non-impregnated and pressure impregnated with a solution with SiO2 nanoparticles, was used in this research. The use of nanoparticles decreases the flammability of timber among others. Some of the tested samples were treated at 250 °C. This temperature corresponds to the boundary of the self-ignition of wood. This elevated temperature was assumed to be reached by a given speed of heating within 10 min, and then the samples were stored in these conditions for 10 and 20 min. The tests demonstrate that the bending strength of the impregnated wood was slightly improved, the impregnation did not impact the elastic modulus of the material in all such conditions, and the residual strength decreased less for the wood impregnated after being exposed to the elevated temperatures. The reliability analysis proves a positive effect of impregnation with a solution with SiO2 on the durability of wood, both after being exposed to normal and elevated temperatures. The distribution of the failure rates indicates a more intensive degradation of non-impregnated wood. The distribution of the survival function demonstrates a more probable non-destruction of impregnated wood after elevated temperature conditions.