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Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma was demonstrated to have an ability to generate different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), showing wide biological actions. Within this study, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) and FexOy/NPs catalysts were produced and embedded in the polysaccharide matrix of chitosan/curdlan/hydroxyapatite biomaterial. Then, basic physicochemical and structural characterization of the NPs and biomaterials was performed. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the combined action of cold nitrogen plasma and the materials produced on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), which were seeded onto the bone scaffolds containing NPs or FexOy/NPs catalysts. Incorporation of catalysts into the structure of the biomaterial was expected to enhance the formation of plasma-induced RONS, thereby improving stem cell behavior. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that short-time (16s) exposure of ADSCs to nitrogen plasma accelerated proliferation of cells grown on the biomaterial containing FexOy/NPs catalysts and increased osteocalcin production by the cells cultured on the scaffold containing pure NPs. Plasma activation of FexOy/NPs-loaded biomaterial resulted in the formation of appropriate amounts of oxygen-based reactive species that had positive impact on stem cell proliferation and at the same time did not negatively affect their osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, plasma-activated FexOy/NPs-loaded biomaterial is characterized by improved biocompatibility and has great clinical potential to be used in regenerative medicine applications to improve bone healing process.