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In particular, mainstream deammonificationand/or shortened nitrification-denitrification via nitrite (so-called “nitrite shunt”) is a promising new treatment concept that has the potential to revolutionise hownitrogen removal is achieved at WWTPs. Understanding the role of the AOB/NOB competition in the nitrogen cycle in wastewater treatment systems will change operational strategies of the novel nitrogen removal processes. The key role in this process is inhibition of NOB activity undesirably affects AOB activity and leads to inefficient partialnitrification process and when used as pre-treatmentfor Anammox it can limit nitrite supply to Anammox bacteria. Successful NOB repression requires a combination of such factors as a low DO concentration, a rapid transition from aerobic to anoxic conditions,and tight control of Temperature and/or pH. The major driving force behind the successful NOB washout is the inhibition of those bacteria based on the difference in the growth rate between AOB and NOB. The obtained results from this study show the mechanisms and operating conditions (e.g.DO concentration, Temp.) leading to complete domination of AOB over NOB under aerobic conditions. This paper presents the perspectives on modelling AOB-NOB competition in shortcut nitrification. The combined deammonification, shortened nitrification-denitrification and/or nitritation-anammox process was compared with conventional nitrification-denitrification based on own experiments and literature data. Its successful application as shortcut nitrification technology and new control system will represent a paradigm shift for the wastewater industry, offering the opportunity for sustainable wastewater treatment, energy-neutral or even energy-positive facilities, and substantial reductions in treatment costs.