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The synthesis, thermal, and mechanical properties of epoxy resin composites incorporating waste fibers of hemp were studied. Five different systems with increasing quantity of the eco-filler were obtained. For the synthesis of polymeric materials, the commercial epoxy resins Epidian® 5 and triethylenetetramine (TETA) were applied as crosslinking agents. The composites were obtained based on the polyaddition reaction of an amine group with an epoxide ring. ATR/FT-IR (Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis was used to confirm the chemical structure of the composites and the course of curing processes. Moreover, the influence of the eco-friendly components on the mechanical properties was determined, while thermal properties of the materials were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic mechanical studies (DMA) and Shore hardness tests of the obtained polymers were also carried out. The DSC curves and DMA analysis revealed that all materials were characterized by a similar glass transition range. Furthermore, the DMA and hardness measurements of the composites demonstrated an increasing elasticity with the increase in the amount of eco-filler present in the compositions.