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The work is aimed at solving the problem of converting existing diesel power drives to gas fuels, which are cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternatives to diesel fuel. Method of energy efficiency increasing of alternative fuels has been improved. Thermochemical essence of energy increasing of source fuel based on the provisions of thermodynamics is considered. Alternative methanol fuel has been chosen as initial product for conversion process and its cost, energy value, and temperature conditions have been taken into account. Calculations showed that the thermal effect from combustion of the converted mixture of CO and H2 exceeds the effect from combustion of the same amount of non-convertible methanol. Fuel energy and engine power were increased due to thermochemical regeneration of exhaust gas heat. An experimental setup was created to study the operation of a converted diesel engine on methanol conversion products. Experimental studies of power, economic, and environmental parameters of converted diesel engine for methanol conversion products were performed. Experimental studies have shown that conversion of diesel engines to work using methanol conversion products is technically reasonable. Fuel consumption reduction was accompanied by environmental performance improvement of the diesel engine working together with a thermochemical methanol conversion reactor. Formation of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases decreased in the range of 22–35%, and carbon monoxide occurred in the range of 0–24% according to the crankshaft speed and loading on the engine. Conversion of diesel engines for methanol conversion products is very profitable, because the price of methanol is, on average, 10–20% of the cost of diesel fuel.