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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of modification with liquid rubber on the adhesion to tooth tissues (enamel, dentin), wettability and ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation of resin-based dental composites. Two commercial composites (Flow-Art–flow type with 60% ceramic filler and Boston–packable type with 78% ceramic filler; both from Arkona Laboratorium Farmakologii Stomatologicznej, Nasutów, Poland) were modified by addition of 5% by weight (of resin) of a liquid methacrylate-terminated polybutadiene. Results showed that modification of the flow type composite significantly (p < 0.05) increased the shear bond strength values by 17% for enamel and by 33% for dentine. Addition of liquid rubber significantly (p < 0.05) reduced also hydrophilicity of the dental materials since the water contact angle was increased from 81–83° to 87–89°. Interestingly, modified packable type material showed improved antibiofilm activity against Steptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis (quantitative assay with crystal violet), but also cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells since cell viability was reduced to 37% as proven in a direct-contact WST-8 test. Introduction of the same modification to the flow type material significantly improved its antibiofilm properties (biofilm reduction by approximately 6% compared to the unmodified material, p < 0.05) without cytotoxic effects against human fibroblasts (cell viability near 100%). Thus, modified flow type composite may be considered as a candidate to be used as restorative material since it exhibits both nontoxicity and antibiofilm properties.