With easy-to-process 3D printing materials and fast production, the quality of dental services can be improved. In the conventional procedure, the dentist makes temporary crowns directly in the patient’s mouth, e.g., from the most commonly used bis-acrylic composites. Temporary crowns made directly in the office without the use of CAD/CAM are often of inferior quality, which directly results in impaired hygiene, poorer masticatory mechanics, greater deposition of plaque, calculus and sediment, and may adversely affect periodontal and gum health. The mechanical strength, resistance to aging and abrasion of 3D printing materials are higher than those of the soft materials used in conventional methods. This translates into durability. The patient leaves the surgery with a restoration of higher utility quality compared to the conventional method. The objective of the paper was to determine the influence of aging in artificial saliva of AM (additive manufacturing) orthodontic composites on their functional properties. For the purpose of the study, fillings well-known worldwide were selected. These were traditional UV-curable resins (M I, M II, M III, M V) and a hybrid material based on a UV-curable resin (M VI). Samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1 °C in a thermal chamber for 6 months. Indentation hardness, frictional tests and sliding wear measurements were conducted. A comparison between various materials was made. Descriptive statistics, degradation coefficients, H2E, Archard wear and specific wear rate were calculated. The Weibull statistical test for indentation hardness was performed and Hertzian contact stresses for the frictional association were calculated for unaged (M I, M II, M III, M V, M VI) and aged (M I AS, M II AS, M III AS, M V AS, M VI AS) samples. M I exhibited the lowest average hardness among the unaged materials, while M III AS had the lowest average hardness among the aged materials. Comparably low hardness was demonstrated by the M I AS material. The coefficient of friction values for the aged samples were found to be higher. The lowest wear value was demonstrated by the M I material. The wear resistance of most of the tested materials deteriorated after aging. The M VI AS material had the highest increase in wear. According to the results provided, not only the chemical composition and structure, but also aging have a great impact on the indentation hardness and wear resistance of the tested orthodontic materials.