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This paper presents the results of testing the electrical strength of an insulating system in a vacuum obtained from three noble gases: argon, neon, helium, and air. The breakdown voltages were measured for contact gaps of 1 mm and 2 mm. A difference was observed in the pressure range where the electrical strength was kept constant. The chamber filled with helium residual gases lost its insulating properties at the highest pressure among the tested gases (2.00 × 100 Pa at contact gap d = 2 mm), while the chamber filled with argon gas lost its insulating properties at the lowest pressure among the tested gases (2.00 × 10−1 Pa at contact gap d = 2 mm). After a decrease in electrical strength, an intense glow discharge was observed. A theoretical description related to the initiation of an electrical breakdown in vacuum insulating systems is also presented. The situation in which the discharge chamber with a contact system was filled with the mentioned gases was analyzed. The mean free paths of the electrons and molecules as well as the velocities and energies of the electrons accelerated by the voltage applied to electrodes were calculated. The obtained results were related to the measurement parameters and analyzed in terms of the discharge development. The results of the research suggest alternatives for the further development of vacuum-extinguishing chambers used in environmentally-friendly electrical switchgear by increasing the rated operating pressure, maintaining the required electrical strength values, and thus facilitating the operation due to greater certainty in regard tomaintaining the integrity of such a vacuum interrupter.